66 Commandments

The 66 subdivisions of the 7 Noachide commandments

Although there are only Seven Noachide Commandments, it is possible to subdivide them into 66 subdivisions according to Rabbi Dr. Aaron Lichtenstein in his book ‘The Seven Laws of Noah’. He bases these subdivisions on Rabbi Moses Maimonides’ 613 commandments for Jews. Of these subdivisions there are 52 Negative and 14 Positive.

1. Theft

1. “…against stealing.” Negative Mitzvah 244 (lo tignovu). Leviticus 19:11 “Do not steal”

2. “…against committing robbery.” Negative Mitzvah 245 (lo tigzol). Leviticus 19:13 “Do not commit robbery”

3. “…against shifting a landmark.” Negative Mitzvah 246 (lo tasig gebul). Deuteronomy 19:14 “You shall not remove your neighbor’s boundary marker”

4. “…against cheating.” Negative Mitzvah 247 (lo taashok). Leviticus 19:13 “You shall not defraud your neighbor”

5. “…against repudiating a claim of money owed.” Negative Mitzvah 248 (lo tekahashu). Leviticus 19:11 “You shall not reply falsely”

6. “…against overcharging.” Negative Mitzvah 250 (lo tonu). Leviticus 25:14 “You shall not defraud one another”

7. “…against coveting.” Negative Mitzvah 265 (lo tahmod). Exodus 20:14 “You shall not covet your neighbor’s house”

8. “…against desiring.” Negative Mitzvah 266 (lo titaveh). Deuteronomy 5:18 “You shall not desire your neighbor’s house”

9. “…a laborer shall be allowed to eat of the fruits among which he works [under certain conditions].” Positive Mitzvah 201. Deuteronomy 23:2 “When you come (to work) in your neighbor’s vineyard, you may eat the grapes…you may Pluck the ears”

10. “…against a laborer eating of such fruit [when certain conditions are not met].” Negative Mitzvah 267. Deuteronomy 23:26 “You shall not waive a sickle to your neighbor’s standing grain”

11. “…against a laborer taking of such fruit home.” Negative Mitzvah 268. Deuteronomy 23:25 “When you come into your neighbor’s vineyard, then you may eat your fill of grapes at your desire; but you shall not put any in your container”

12. “…against kidnapping.” Negative Mitzvah 243 (lo tignov). Exodus 20:13 “Do not steal”

13. “…against the use of false weights and measures.” Negative Mitzvah 271. Leviticus 19:35 “You shall do no unrighteousness in judgment; in length, in weight or in measure”

14. “…against the possession of false weights and measures.” Negative Mitzvah 272. Deuteronomy 25:13 “You shall not have in your bag diverse weights, one large and one small”

15 “…that one shall be exact in the use of weights and measures.” Positive Mitzvah 208. Leviticus 19:36 “Honest balance, honest weights, an honest dry measure and an honest liquid measure, you shall have”

16. “…that the robber shall return [or pay for] the stolen object.” Positive Mitzvah 194. Leviticus 5:23 “He shall return that which he stole”


2. Justice

1. “…to appoint judges and officers in each and every community.” Positive Mitzvah 176. Deuteronomy 16:18 “Appoint judges and officers in all your gates”

2. “…to treat the litigants equally before the law.” Positive Mitzvah 177. Leviticus 19:15 “With righteousness, judge your neighbor”

3. “…to inquire diligently into the testimony of a witness.” Positive Mitzvah 179. Deuteronomy 13:15 “Then you shall inquire, search, and ask diligently”

4. “…against the wanton miscarriage of justice by the court.” Negative Mitzvah 273. Leviticus 19:15 “You shall do no unrighteousness in judgment”

5. “…against the judge accepting a bribe or gift from a litigant.” Negative Mitzvah 274. Exodus 23:8 “And you shall take no bribe”

6. “…against the judge showing marks of honour to but one litigant.” Negative Mitzvah 275. Leviticus 19:15 “Nor honor an important person”

7. “…against the judge acting in fear of a litigant’s threats.” Negative Mitzvah 276. Deuteronomy 1:17 “You shall not be afraid because of any man”

8. “…against the judge, out of compassion, favouring a poor litigant.” Negative Mitzvah 277. Exodus 23:3 “You shall not favor a poor man in his cause”

9. “…against the judge discriminating against the litigant because he is a sinner.” Negative Mitzvah 278. Exodus 23:6 “You shall not pervert the judgment of the needy in his cause”

10. “…against the judge, out of softness, putting aside the penalty of a mauler or killer.” Negative Mitzvah 279. Deuteronomy 19:21 “And your eye shall not have pity”

11. “…against the judge discriminating against a stranger or an orphan.” Negative Mitzvah 280. Deuteronomy 24:17 “You shall not pervert the judgment of the stranger or the orphan”

12. “…against the judge hearing one litigant in the absence of the other.” Negative Mitzvah 281. Exodus 23:1 “You shall not raise a false report”

13. “…against appointing a judge who lacks knowledge of the Law.” Negative Mitzvah 284. Deuteronomy 1:17 “Do not respect persons in judgment”

14. “…against the court killing an innocent man.” Negative Mitzvah 289. Exodus 23:7 “And the innocent and righteous you shall not slay”

15. “…against incrimination by circumstantial evidence.” Negative Mitzvah 290. Deuteronomy 22:26 “But to the girl you shall do nothing”

16. “…against punishing for a crime committed under duress.” Negative Mitzvah 294.

17. “…that the court is to administer the death penalty by the sword [i.e., decapitation].” Positive Mitzvah 226. Exodus 21:20 “[The sin] shall surely be avenged”

18. “…against anyone taking the law into his own hands to kill the perpetrator of a capital crime.” Negative Mitzvah 292. Numbers 35:12 “The murderer shall not die until he stands before the congregation in judgment”

19. “…to testify in court.” Positive Mitzvah 178. Leviticus 5:1 “And he is witness, whether he has seen or known of it”

20. “…against testifying falsely.” Negative Mitzvah 285. Exodus 20:13 “You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor”


3. Homicide

Already included in Justice #14. 1. “…against any person murdering anyone” Negative Mitzvah 289. Exodus 20:13 “You shall not murder”


4. Illicit Intercourse

1. “…against [a man] having union with his mother.” Negative Mitzvah 330. Leviticus 18:7 “She is your mother, do not act immodestly with her”

2. “…against [a man] having union with his sister.” Negative Mitzvah 331. Leviticus 18:9 “Do not act immodestly…with your sister”

3. “…against [a man] having union with the wife of his father.” Negative Mitzvah 332. Leviticus 18:8 “Do not act immodestly with your father’s wife”

4. “…against [a man] having union with another man’s wife.” Negative Mitzvah 347. Exodus 20:13 “You shall not commit adultery”

5. “…against [a man] copulating with a beast.” Negative Mitzvah 348. Leviticus 18:23 “Do not act indecently with an animal”

6. “…against a woman copulating with a beast.” Negative Mitzvah 349. Leviticus 18:23 “A woman may not act indecently with an animal”

7. “…against [a man] lying carnally with a male.” Negative Mitzvah 350. Leviticus 18:22 “Do not have a relationship with a male as you would with a woman”

8. “…against [a man] lying carnally with his father.” Negative Mitzvah 351. Leviticus 18:7 “Do not act immodestly with your father”

9. “…against [a man] lying carnally with his father’s brother.” Negative Mitzvah 352. Leviticus 18:14 “Do not act immodestly with your father’s brother”

10. “…against engaging in erotic conduct that may lead to a prohibited union. [That is, petting by persons whose marriage would be illicit.]” Negative Mitzvah 353. Leviticus 18:6 “No person shall approach a close relative and act immodestly”


5. Limb of a Living Creature

1. “…against eating a limb severed from a living animal, beast, or fowl.” Negative Mitzvah 182. Deuteronomy 12:23 “And you may not eat the life with the meat”

2. “…against eating the flesh of any animal which was torn by a wild beast … which, in part, prohibits the eating of such flesh as was torn off an animal while it was still alive.” Negative Mitzvah 181. Exodus 22:30 “Neither shall you eat any meat that is torn in the field”


6. Idolatry

1. “…against entertaining the thought that there exists a deity except the Lord.” Negative Mitzvah 1. Exodus 20:3 “You shall have no other gods besides Me”

2. “…against making any graven image [and against having anyone else make one for us].” Negative Mitzvah 2. Exodus 20:3 “You shall have no other gods besides Me”

3. “…against making idols for use by others.” Negative Mitzvah 3. Leviticus 19:4 “Do not make gods out of metal, for yourselves”

4. “…against making any forbidden statues [even when they are for ornamental purposes].” Negative Mitzvah 4. Exodus 20:20 “Do not make with Me gods of silver, neither shall you make for yourselves gods of gold”

5. “…against bowing to any idol [and not to sacrifice nor to pour libation nor to burn incense before any idol, even where it is not the customary manner of worship to the particular idol].” Negative Mitzvah 5. Exodus 20:5 “Do not bow down to them”

6. “…against worshipping idols in any of their customary manners of worship.” Negative Mitzvah 6. Exodus 20:5 “Do not worship them”

7. “…against causing our children to pass [through the fire] in the worship of Molech.” Negative Mitzvah 7. Leviticus 18:21 “Do not give any of your children to set them apart to Molech”

8. “…against practicing Ov.” Negative Mitzvah 8. Leviticus 19:31 “Do not turn to mediums”

9. “…against the practice of Yiddoni.” Negative Mitzvah 9. Leviticus 19:31 “Do not turn to oracles”

10. “…against turning to idolatry [in word, in thought, in deed, or by any observance that may draw us to its worship].” Negative Mitzvah 10. Leviticus 19:4 “Do not turn to idols”


7. Blasphemy

1. “…to acknowledge the existence of G-d.” Positive Mitzvah 1. Exodus 20:2 “I am the L-rd, your G-d”

2. “…to fear G-d.” Positive Mitzvah 4. Deuteronomy 6:13 “You shall fear the L-rd, your G-d”

3. “…to pray to Him.” Positive Mitzvah 5. Exodus 23:25 “And you shall serve the L-rd, your G-d”

4. “…to sanctify G-d’s name [in face of death, where appropriate].” Positive Mitzvah 9. Leviticus 22:32 “But I will be sanctified among the Children of Israel”

5. “…against desecrating G-d’s name [even in face of death, when appropriate].” Negative Mitzvah 63. Leviticus 22:32 “Neither shall you profane My holy name”

6. “…to study the Torah.” Positive Mitzvah 11. Deuteronomy 6:7 “And you shall teach them diligently to your children.”

7. “…to honor the scholars, and to revere one’s teacher.” Positive Mitzvah 209. Leviticus 19:32 “You shall stand up before an elderly person and give respect to a sage”

8. “…against blaspheming.” Negative Mitzvah 60. Exodus 22:27 “Do not curse G-d”


N.B. – Please note that some of these additional laws should be treated as a list of recommendations and not as the actual accepted Halacha. For further explanation of this you should consult your Local Orthodox Rabbi or the Shulchan Aruch (Code of Law) for Bnei Noach: ‘The Divine Code’.